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treatment for toluene toxicity

Toluene is added to gasoline, used to produce benzene, and used as a solvent. 8.6.4: Toluene toxicity. Toxicity is apparently due to the interaction of toluene with the cytoplasmic membrane. The physiological basis of toluene toxicity in relation to the activated sludge microorganisms, however, remains poorly characterized. Therefore, awareness should be lent to toluene … 16,20 In our case, diagnostic delay and improper sample handling rendered these tests inconclusive. These disorders have different treatments and differentiation is important. Patients with toluene toxicity may initially be suspected of having ethylene glycol toxicity especially as the presentation may be similar (eg a patient with mental obtundation, appearance of intoxication and a metabolic acidosis). Inhalation of toluene (eg by 'glue-sniffing') may cause either a high anion-gap or a normal anion gap acidosis. Exposure to toluene may occur from breathing ambient or indoor air affected by such sources. Toluene (methylbenzene, toluol, phenylmethane) is an aromatic hydrocarbon (C7 H8) commonly used as an industrial solvent for the manufacturing of paints, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and rubber. The high anion gap is probably a consequence of its metabolism to hippuric acid. The central nervous system (CNS) is the primary target organ for toluene toxicity in both humans and animals for acute (short-term) and chronic (long-term) exposures. This process results in the loss of the cations Mg2þ and Ca2þ as well as other small molecules. Laboratory testing for acute toluene toxicity is hampered by the fact that blood tests for toluene and urinary tests for hippuric acid are not available in most hospitals. Toluene is a hydrocarbon, C 6 H 5 CH 3, also known as toluol and methyl benzene.It is a colorless, highly refractive inflammable liquid obtained from tolu and other resins and from coal tar. Toluene toxicity is a clinical diagnosis, although serum toluene and urine hippuric acid have been described as diagnostic measures. List of known side effects. It is identified as CAS#108-88-3, and the United Nations Department of Transportation's number for toluene is UN#1294. Severe acute and chronic exposure requires supportive measures such as : It boils at 110.4 C. and has an odor similar to that of benzene. Toluene naturally occurs in crude oil at low levels and, as such, toluene is typically generated during the process of making fuels from crude oil. Treatment for Exposure and Toxicity. ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry BAEP Brainstem auditory evoked potentials BMD Benchmark dose BMDL BMD lower 95% confidence limit BMDS Benchmark dose modeling software BMR Benchmark response BTEX Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes CAS Chemical Abstracts Service Toluene may also cause significant renal damage especially with chronic use. Mild to moderate exposure requires no significant measures and symptoms pass in a short period of time. View non-human toxicity values for 2,4-toluene diisocyanate in WISER. There is no specific medication for treating toluene toxicity. Hypokalemic paralysis and renal failure are life-threatening complications. Context: Toluene inhalation is a common form of drug abuse throughout the world. Acute toluene toxicity causes neurological changes as well as various metabolic alterations. The prognosis of Toluene Poisoning is dependent on the amount of substance consumed, time between consumption and treatment, severity of the symptoms, as well as general health status of the patient If the individual can recover from the symptoms, with appropriate medication and early support, the outcome is generally good , used to produce benzene, and used as a solvent toluene is UN # 1294 especially with chronic.! 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